Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Intelligent Computer Chess, Part VII

Part I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX

Abstract

In Part VI, I wrote that the fundamental building blocks of memory is a sequence of up to seven nodes. Since memory is organized hierarchically, like a tree, any bottom level sequence can serve as a node in a higher level sequence, itself consisting of up to seven nodes. The tree is open ended, that is to say, the number of levels is indefinite. In this post, I will describe the memory builder, i.e., the mechanism that combines incoming signals into sequences. I will also describe how the tree of knowledge is used for pattern completion and recognition purposes.

Sequence Learning and Certainty

Signals arriving from the separation layer have temporal relationships that can be learned. There are only two possible temporal relationships: signals can be either concurrent or sequential. Any two correlated signals, whether concurrent or sequential, will retain their relationship every time they repeat. In other words, they will have the same frequency. This is a powerful observation that we can use to devise a memory builder.
A five-node sequence
Currently, Animal's sequence learning mechanism consists of two parts. One part serves as a filter that eliminates all signals whose frequencies do not match that of a reference signal. The second part is the sequence learner proper. Its function is to position the signal input lines on appropriate nodes in the sequence. Note that a node may receive multiple concurrent signals but not all the signals at a given node must arrive concurrently in order for the node to fire. For recognition purposes, node firing certainty is determined by the number of signals arriving at that node.

The way this works is as follows. A signal input line is chosen at random to serve as the reference signal for a sequence. Other lines are attached randomly to the sequence and are tested for frequency fitness. That is to say, their signals must have the same frequency as the reference signal. The lines attached to each individual node are tested for concurrency at that node. An important rule is that an input line can only be connected to one node in the sequence. Eventually, the sequence forms and it is up to the sequence learner to determine the predecessors and successors and link them accordingly. Once a sequence is learned, it can be subsequently reused for recording and recognition. The temporal intervals between the nodes are recorded and used for prediction purposes.

Long Term Memory, Pattern Completion and Recognition

It is important to note that a correlation may only last for a little while. For example, while looking at someone's face, the eye moves in small jerky movements called saccades. These will generate correlated signals that depend on the particular features of the face. The memory builder must be able to rapidly detect the correlations and remember them. That is to say, it must create permanent sequences in memory. Later, if the same face reappears in the field of vision, the recorded sequences will be reactivated and reused. Thus, long-term memory consists of recorded sequences.

The way recognition works in the tree of knowledge (TOK) is both simple and powerful. Upon receiving signals from the separation layer, bottom level nodes will activate higher level nodes. Multiple low-level activations in the right order can activate upper level nodes. Eventually, an entire multi-level branch of the tree will be activated when, say, a cat appears in the visual field. What makes this mechanism powerful is that a branch can be activated even in situations of sensory uncertainty, such as a partially occluded image or an object viewed under low light conditions. This is called pattern completion. Without it, we would not be able to understand or navigate the world around us.

Coming Up

Pattern completion is really synonymous with anticipation. Given enough sensory information, our brains can anticipate the future and this ability is what drives our goal-directed behavior. In Part VIII and Part IX, I will explain the difference between short and long term memory and describe how the tree of knowledge is used to generate adaptive motor behavior.

See Also:

The Brain: Universal Invariant Recognition

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Intelligent Computer Chess, Part VI

Part I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX

Abstract

In Part V, I talked about the tree of life and the tree of knowledge. I wrote that the brain's memory served many functions including information storage and retrieval, attention, recognition and anticipation. In this post, I revisit my tree of life prediction and I describe the fundamental building block used by the memory builder to build the tree of knowledge.

Gene Hierarchies, the Tree of Life and Immortality

I realize this has nothing to do with computer chess but I need to clarify something I said in the previous post. I wrote that, based on my interpretation of the tree of life in the book of Genesis, the structure of the genome is organized hierarchically, like a tree. I also wrote that I did not think that anybody in the genetics community was saying this or even suspected it. It turns out that I was wrong. Gene researchers have indeed established that genes do form a control hierarchy (a tree), one which is especially noticeable during embryonic development when various branches of the tree are activated in a precise order. I did a Google search and I found that many geneticists, such as Nobel Laureate John Sulston and others, have been trying to unravel the gene hierarchies of various organisms (e.g., flagellar gene hierarchy) for some time. Since I am not a geneticist, I guess I can be forgiven for not keeping up with progress in the field.

At any rate, I think this is good news for my hypothesis. At the very least, it corroborates my interpretation of the Biblical metaphors which calls for the genome to be hierarchically organized. But I think it goes further than that. First of all, since both the tree of life and the tree of knowledge are mentioned together in the book of Genesis, I interpret it to mean that both trees have very similar regulatory or control functions. Since the timing of branch activation is an essential aspect of the tree of knowledge, it is reasonable to assume that it is equally essential to the tree of life. Second, as I will show in a future article, a major part of the book of Revelation is a symbolic description of the tree of life and, more importantly, of the genetic mechanism of aging and immortality. Indeed, did not the Elohim (the masters) figuratively chase the early humans from the garden of Eden for fear they would partake of the fruit of the tree of life and discover the secret of immortality? Something to think about.

Memory Builder and Memory Building Blocks

It pays to think of the brain's memory system as a building under construction. In this light, we need a mechanism whose function it is to build memory from the ground up. But we also need building materials, i.e., memory building blocks. The fundamental building block of memory in the human brain (and Animal's brain) is a sequence of up to seven nodes each. One of the main functions of the memory builder (MB) is to check to see if signals arriving from the signal separation layer fit into seven-node sequences.

Why seven nodes? Why not two or ten or even twenty? Personally, I don't think it has to be seven. I think that seven happens to be an optimum number for the human brain. The reason that I picked seven for Animal's brain is that I believe that this is what Zechariah was alluding to when he wrote:
For behold the stone that I have laid before Joshua; upon one stone shall be seven eyes.
Once enough primary building blocks have been constructed, the MB can use them to build the entire edifice.

Coming Up

The figure below represents a five-node sequence.

A five-node sequence
Note that there are several concurrent inputs for each node in the sequence. I will explain why in Part VII. I will also explain how the MB attaches the signal input lines to form the sequences and how the sequences are used to build the tree of knowledge.

See Also:

The Brain: Universal Invariant Recognition

Thursday, March 10, 2011

Intelligent Computer Chess, Part V

Part I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX

Abstract

In Part IV, I wrote that I derived my understanding of the brain from my interpretation of a handful of occult (symbolic) passages in the Bible, mainly from the books of Revelation and Zechariah. I then explained why Animal's brain is monospherical and has no cerebellum. Finally, I gave a brief introduction to the tree of knowledge. The TOK, symbolized by an olive tree in the book of Zechariah, is a hierarchical storage system for temporal information. In today's post, I want to talk about the functions of memory but first, a word about trees.

The Trees of Eden

I think that, since I am writing about a particular symbolic tree, that I should bring your attention to other symbolic trees found in ancient Biblical texts. I'm talking about the tree of life and the tree of knowledge, which are mentioned in the book of Genesis. Several questions come to mind. First, is Genesis referring to actual trees in the garden of Eden or symbolic trees? Second, can we make a connection between the TOK in Genesis and the two olive trees in Zechariah's vision? Finally, and more importantly, what does the tree of life represent if it's not a real tree? At this time, I can only tell you what I personally believe in. I cannot go into the reasons because it is beyond the scope of this series. I just think it's something that you should keep in the backs of your minds, as I intend to get back to this subject some time in the not too distant future.

Unlike many (most?) Christians, I believe that the garden of Eden story is purely symbolic and that the two trees in the garden are metaphorical trees. I believe that the TOK in Genesis is the same as Zechariah's olive tree and that the tree of life has to do with genetics. My current understanding is that early man was allowed access to various fields of knowledge (the garden of Eden) but was forbidden, for whatever reason, to learn the secrets of (partake of the fruit of) intelligence (the tree of knowledge) and genetics (the tree of life).

This begs a final question. Why do I write that the tree of life has to do with genetics? Well, for one thing, it is also mentioned in the book of Revelation in connection with the brain. I believe that the message to Ephesus is referring to the fact that a part of the brain (Ephesus) regulates internal body functions. This is something that I only recently figured out but there is something else about the symbolic meaning of the tree of life that is much more important in my opinion. I am now convinced that information in the genome (and consequently, the body's structure) is organized and controlled hierarchically (like a tree), just like memory.

This is another prediction of my Bible hypothesis that I am making on this blog now as a matter of record (you heard it here first). I don't think anybody in the genetics community is saying this or even suspects it. Sure they talk about a tree of life or phylogenetic tree, but what they are really referring to is genetic inheritance from one species to the next. This genetic tree is supposedly based on common descent (an increasingly challenged principle of Darwinian evolution), which gives rise to so-called nested hierarchies. I believe that the tree-like, internal hierarchical nature of the code structure/organization of the genome will soon be discovered as we continue to use computers to analyze the growing database of genetic information. More on this in a future post.

Addendum (4/13/11)

It turns out that geneticists have already detected gene hierarchies (tree-like control structure) within various genomes. I'll have more to say on this in my next post.

The Functions of Memory

The tree of knowledge is the most important part of the brain because it contains all of the knowledge that we accumulate in life. It is used primary for the storage and retrieval of temporal information arriving from the senses. But it serves other purposes as well. It is the main mechanism that is responsible for several cognitive functions such as recognition and attention.

For examples, a single branch in the brain's TOK may represent a particular person such as one's grandmother. What this means is that every time grandma appears in the brain's field of vision, the branch will activate to indicate a positive recognition. However, something else may come into view that catches the subject's attention. This will cause a different branch in the tree to activate, thereby deactivating grandma's branch. This is the mechanism of attention. It turns out that only one branch can be activated at a time. Each branch, however, controls up to seven sub-branches. This is why our short-term memory capacity is limited to seven items. The branch structure is also the reason that psychologists say that memory is organized in chunks. Each branch of the tree is a chunk of memory. As I will explain in a coming post in this series, the TOK is also ideally suited for anticipation and goal-seeking behavior. Anticipation is necessary for conditioned learning and behavior, which is called classical and operant conditioning in psychology.

Coming Up

In Part VI, I will describe a special mechanism in Animal's brain called the memory builder. Its function is to use the discrete signals arriving from the first layer (the signal separation layer) to construct Animal's tree of knowledge.

See Also:

The Brain: Universal Invariant Recognition
Artificial Intelligence From the Bible

Sunday, March 6, 2011

Intelligent Computer Chess, Part IV

Part I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX

Abstract

In Part III, I wrote that the first layer in Animal's neural network, the retina, detects contextual movements in its visual field. In this post, I present a brief introduction to the main neural structure of Animal's brain, the tree of knowledge or TOK for short. But first, I want to say a few words about how I came to my current understanding of intelligence and the brain. Some of you will not like what I am about to say but this is precisely why I want to say it.

Brick Wall

The ideas behind Animal's brain architecture did not spring out of thin air. I've been trying to understand intelligence for at least thirty years. Although I made some encouraging progress in the beginning, my research soon hit a brick wall. Early on, I concluded that intelligence was, at its core, a temporal phenomenon and that the symbol manipulation approach to AI used by the baby boomers in the last century was a complete waste of brains, time and money. I figured out that an intelligent system's ability to make predictions (i.e., to anticipate the future) was essential to goal-seeking behavior and that, somewhere in the system, there had to be a motivational mechanism that selected actions based on potential outcomes. In sum, I had a number of powerful insights but I could not get them to coalesce into a coherent whole. In other words, I could not formulate an effective theory of intelligence. I was stuck.

A Funny Thing Happened in 2002

My research more or less stagnated until the end of the year 2002. That's when I made an amazing discovery that completely changed the nature of my work. One evening, while reading the Christian occult book (aka the Book of Revelation or the Apocalypse), I was struck by an uncanny resemblance between some of my ideas on intelligence and a handful of metaphorical passages collectively known as the Message to the Seven Churches of Asia. It was like a bolt of lightning. I became instantly convinced that the book of Revelation was not at all what Christians and others profess it to be. There was no doubt in my mind that it was a book of amazing scientific secrets coded in clever metaphors. Soon afterwards, my research led me to examine another ancient occult text, an old testament book written by the prophet Zechariah around 518 BC, more than 600 years before Revelation. Zechariah's text turned out to be a treasure trove of hidden knowledge about the brain. Here are a few metaphors and my interpretations:
  • The Temple
    This is a metaphor for memory.
  • The Stone with Seven Eyes
    Symbolizes the fundamental building block of memory.
  • The Menorah (Seven Branch Lampstand) or Seven Eyes of God
    This represents the seven-item capacity of short-term memory.
  • The Two Olive Trees
    This is the tree-like memory structures of the left and right hemispheres of the brain.
One of my findings squarely contradicts mainstream neuroscience literature. Currently, neuroscientists believe that the cerebellum contributes to language and speech processing. However, my interpretation of the messages to the Church of Pergamum and the Church of Laodicea in the book of Revelation forced me to conclude that the mainstream view is incorrect. It is true that people with cerebellar lesions tend to speak haltingly but it's only because they must stop periodically to consciously handle routine functions (e.g., balance and posture) that are normally the responsibility of the cerebellum. Over the last several years, my understanding of the brain and intelligence has increased a thousand fold and I attribute my progress entirely to my study of the ancient Biblical texts. Read Artificial Intelligence From the Bible to learn about my early research in this area.

Yes, I Am a Christian

So yes, I am a Christian. And no, I am not a fire and brimstone fundamentalist, nor am I a young earth creationist. As some of you already know, unlike most Christians, I believe in really weird Christian shit. For example, I believe that the most revolutionary scientific advances in the history of humanity will happen in this century and will come straight out of the Bible. And by revolutionary advances, I am talking about all the "crackpot" stuff that mainstream science looks down on such as free energy, levitation, extremely fast travel, artificial intelligence, the secret of eternal youth, etc.

All my scientific research, especially in physics and AI, is inextricably tied to my being a Christian. I know, this is enough to cause every atheist on the planet (and even many among those who call themselves Christians) to have an apoplectic fit but, in the end, it's all about what you believe in, i.e., your religion. This is true even if your are convinced that you don't have one. Again, let me reiterate that, if you don't like the fact that I am a Christian or if you have a problem with my brand of Christianity or my Biblical research, then my blog is not for you. I only write for kindred spirits, sorry.

And above all, please do not write to let me know that you think I'm a crackpot or a nut because I don't care.

The Two Brains (Two Olive Trees)

In contrast to the human brain which has two hemispheres and thus two trees of knowledge (the two olive trees), Animal's brain is monospherical. The main reason for this is that I am not entirely sure how to connect two hemispheres together. I know from my research (the ancient texts are adamant in this regard) that the brain is complementary in nature and that the right hemisphere has master control over the left hemisphere but I have not yet figured out how to implement this master/slave duality in an artificial brain. At this point I have reasons to suspect that a bispherical, master/slave brain is not needed unless it resides in a body with bi-lateral sensors and effectors. This is not the case with Animal.

The Tree of Knowledge

The TOK is a multi-functional hierarchical neural network that receives its input signals directly from the signal separation layer (see Part III). Its primary purpose is to serve as a repository of temporal knowledge. However, it is also the source of all motor signals (more on this in a future post). Note that, in a real brain, motor signals are also generated by the cerebellum. If I were designing the brain of a complex bipedal robot, I would certainly include a cerebellum since it is needed for routine supporting functions such as maintaining posture and balance. Animal does not have a cerebellum because it is not needed.

The bottom or fundamental level (level 0) of the inverted tree of knowledge is the input layer proper. This is where signals arriving from the separation layer enter the network. Note that the arrows in the figure above do not represent signal directions. They only serve to depict the hierarchical control mechanism of the tree. Every memory unit (red circle) at every level, except level 0, controls a group of up to seven other units residing at a lower level. A group is a sequence of events. Groups are the fundamental building blocks of Animal's knowledge structure.

Coming Up

In Part V, I will describe how the organization of the TOK explains things like anticipation, recognition, attention and what psychologists call long-term and short-term memory.

See Also:

The Brain: Universal Invariant Recognition
Artificial Intelligence From the Bible