Sunday, October 24, 2010

The Cherubim Model of Elementary Particles, Part VI

Part I, II, III, IV, V, VI

Abstract

Sorry for the delay. In Part V, I wrote that electrons use a special cherubic property (hands) to attach themselves to other electrons and form locked pairs. In today's post, I describe the mechanics of hand grabbing and I explain how pairing solves the electron motion problem that I spoke of in Part III. But first, I would like to say a few words about the three types of electrons that I hinted at in a previous post. Please read the previous installments before continuing.

Three Types of Electrons

The Cherubim model predicts the existence of three types of electrons. Why? Remember that every cherub has two pairs of wings, one pair per dimension. This restricts the cherub's motion to only two dimensions, which is the same as saying that it can only move in an absolute 2-D plane. However, Ezekiel's text does not specify which two dimensions the wings of a cherub belong to. This implies that they can belong to any two of the three spatial dimensions.
Note: A dimension, within the context of these posts, is defined as an absolute degree of freedom, i.e., a line of motion parallel to one of the four absolute axes of the universe.
If we label the three spatial dimensions A, B, and C, it is easy to see that there can only be three possible combination pairs: AB, AC, and BC. These are the three types of cherubim. Since electrons consist of identical cherubim, it follows that there are also three types of electrons. What does it all mean? It means that, in spite of their identical electric charge, electrons have three possible magnetic signatures. Why? Because it is the wings of cherubim that generate their magnetic fields during motion.

As far as I can tell from studying the ancient texts, cherubim and electrons do not change from one type to another. At this point in my research, I can only guess that all three types are equally distributed in matter. But it's only a guess. I am sure there are experiments one can perform to determine the precise type of an electron but I haven't given it much thought. Suffice it to say that knowing the precise direction of the absolute axes of the universe will be an essential part of the experiments. I'll get back to this in a future article.

Hand Grabbing Rules

The following may seem somewhat complicated but, if you can play tic-tac-toe, you'll have no trouble grasping it. There are no complex math equations to decipher, just a few simple principles. Please keep the following verse from the book of Ezekiel in the back of your mind for reference.
Ezekiel 1:8.Under their wings on their four sides they had the hands of a man.
Let's consider an electron of type AB. Every cherub that comprises the electron has four wings, two for dimension A and two for dimension B. The wings can be labelled thus: A1, A2, B1 and B2. Since the hands of a cherub are under their wings, we can use the same labels for them as well. According to my evolving Cherubim particle model, there are several rules that govern the way cherubim can use their hands to hold on to one another.
  1. A cherub's hand can grab the hand of another cherub only if both hands are on the same side. For example, an A1 hand can only grab another A1 hand.
  2. One cherub can only hold one of the hands of another. The reason is that, even though the hands are on four sides of the cherub, all the hands are human hands. Using more than one hand to grab another cherub would be redundant.
  3. In any given electron, if two hands are attached to each other on a side, the other two hands must also be attached. This is because all the hands on a given side are under (governed by) the same touching wings.
These rules are necessary in order to understand what follows.

Las Cuatro Manos de Dios

Given the above, it should be obvious that, regardless of type, there are four ways that one cherub can hold on to another. The figure below shows the four cherubim that comprise an electron of type AB. The cherubim are arranged vertically, each with four hands, A1, A2, B1 and B2. The brackets indicate which pair of hands are joined together. As you can see, the four hands on the B2 side are free. I call them las cuatro manos de Dios (the four hands of God) mostly for fun but also because I know it will be a source of irritation to atheists everywhere when the cat gets out of the bag. Let me just say that irritating atheists is one of my hobbies.
We can call this AB electron, AB2, to indicate that it has free hands on side B2. Using this simple convention, an AB electron with free hands on side A1 would be called A1B. Likewise, a BC electron with free hands on side B2 would be called B2C.

At this point I am not sure what causes an electron to have four free hands on any given side. I suspect that this is something that is determined when two compatible electrons get together and form a bonded pair.

Electron Pairing

What is really interesting about all this is that two electrons can latch on to each other as long as they have identical free hands. For example, an AB2 electron has the ability to hold on to a B2C electron and form a bonded pair called AB2C. Likewise, an AC1 electron can bond to a BC1 electron to form an ABC1 pair.

Two questions comes to my mind. First, can an AB2 electron bond with another AB2 electron? Second, since every electron has an can an electron bond with a fifth cherub? The answer to the first question is yes but the motion of the bonded pair will be restricted to the absolute plane AB. The answer to the second question is also yes but the bond will be a rather weak one. Why? Because, according to the grabbing rules, the fifth cherub can only use one hand for grabbing. I'll leave it as an exercise to the reader to figure out why.

Electron Pairing and Electron Motion

Electron pairing is good news because the Cherubim particle model imposes a severe restriction on the motion of solitary electrons. As explained elsewhere, a single electron can only move in an absolute plane, the axes of which are aligned with two of the three absolute dimensions of space. However, a bonded electron pair has an additional degree of freedom that allows it to move in three dimensions. I can make a simple prediction, based on this model. I predict that a directed electron beam (say, in a cathode ray tube) consists exclusively of bonded electron pairs. Let me add that there is a little bit more to the mechanics of electron pairing as it applies to motion than what I have covered in this post. I will have more to say about the subject in a future article.

Upcoming

Note that I am aware of electron pairing in the physics literature but the definitions used in the Standard Model do not correspond to the Cherubim model. Indeed, the two models are so different that it is often hard to make direct comparisons. Thanks to Einstein and his cheerleaders, the very concept of absolute dimensions, a prerequisite in the Cherubim model, is anathema to the physics community.

So far, I am following a certain logic based on a set of assumptions to arrive at my interpretations and conclusions. From my perspective, I think there is a slight chance that I may be wrong about some of the details. This is why this is only a hypothesis for the time being. Unfortunately, I don't have adequate resources to experimentally validate the model. Not yet, anyway. I am preparing a series on protons and neutrons that, hopefully, will change all that. In my next article, I will revisit seraphim motion and talk about something that I figured out only recently: seraphim bonding.

Thursday, October 14, 2010

Temporary Pause

I apologize for the delay in posting the next installment in the Cherubim series. I don't know why but it seems that whenever I get close to some breakthrough in my research, some bad thing happens that demands my full attention elsewhere. So please, hang in there. There are many more exciting revelations I want to talk about. This stuff promises to be more disruptive and game changing than even I can imagine.

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

The Cherubim Model of Elementary Particles, Part V

Part I, II, III, IV, V, VI

Abstract

According to the Cherubim particle model, the elementary particles that comprise every electron carry 1/4 of the electron's charge and can only move in an absolute 2-D plane. This limitation is at odds with experimental observations. In this post, I will describe the strange and fascinating properties of electrons, as predicted by the model.

La Mano de Dios

During the 1986 World Cup quarter finals, the famous Argentinian striker, Diego Maradona, scored a winning goal against the English team with a handball.
Source: Bob Thomas Sports Photography, Getty Images, taken 22 June 1986

Unbelievably, the goal was allowed by the referee even though it was illegal. Argentina went on to win the World Cup with a final win against West Germany. This incident quickly became known as the Hand of God goal (la Mano de Dios) in fĂștbol circles. So, what does this have to do with Ezekiel, electrons and cherubim? Let me first say that I'm having a little fun here because I happen to like soccer as a sport. Second, recall that a hand in Ezekiel's vision is a symbol that stands for a special property that allows one cherub to grab or hold on to another. I realize that I am mixing my metaphors but the point I want to make is that sometimes, with a helping hand, awesome things can be achieved that would be impossible otherwise.

Human Hands Under their Wings

One of the problems with having a composite electron is that its constituents have the same charge polarity and, as a result, they repel each other. It is for this reason that cherubim, the charged elementary constituents of the electron, must have a special property that holds them together and prevents them from flying apart. This property is symbolized in Ezekiel's text by the hands.
Ezekiel 1:8.Under their wings on their four sides they had the hands of a man. All four of them had faces and wings.
It makes sense to conclude from this verse that, since every cherub has four wings, it must also have four hands. However, why does the verse mention only four sides? Given that a cherub has four faces, shouldn't we expect it to have eight sides in total, one for each direction? Yes, of course. However, I don't think that Ezekiel was referring to facial orientations. I think he was referring to a different kind of sides. I think he was talking about the four possible directions of motion of a cherub. The four sides are really associated with the four wings of the cherub, that is to say, its four possible directions of travel.

That being said, why must every cherub have four hands? After all, each cherub only needs to hold on to three other cherubim. Having four hands means that every cherub has one extra free hand. I call this free hand, la mano de Dios not just because it reminds me of Diego Maradona's famous handball but because this is what explains the observed motion of electrons.

The Four Free Hands of the Electron

Since an electron is composed of four cherubim, it follows that every electron has four free hands. The question is, what are those hands for? In my opinion, they are used for grabbing another electron. At this point, I think you can probably guess where I am going with this. According to the Cherubim model, which I derived from the ancient Biblical metaphors, electrons do not move alone. They travel in pairs.

The Road Ahead

The main purpose of a particle model is to explain why particles come in certain configurations and properties. The second purpose is to predict the existence of heretofore undiscovered configurations and properties. If I am right, we will eventually be able to use the Cherubim model to explain the mass and composition of not just protons and neutrons but the mass number of the various nuclei as well. And we should be able to do this starting from the mass of the electron. This is the road ahead and I will follow it wherever it leads.

Upcoming

I truly believe in the old Christian adage, search and you will find. Who knows what delightful surprises await us around every corner? In Part VI, I will describe electron pairing in more detail and explain why pairing is an essential aspect of electron movement and overall behavior. I will also explain why there are three types of electrons. I know, I had promised to do this in this post but I think it's best that I leave it for the next one.

Saturday, October 9, 2010

The Cherubim Model of Elementary Particles, Part IV

Part I, II, III, IV, V, VI

Abstract

To repeat, the Cherubim particle model posits the existence of elementary particles called cherubim, each of which carries exactly 1/4 of the electron's charge and mass. Thus, according to the model, an electron is composed of four identical cherubim. In Part III, I wrote that I had reasons to doubt the correctness of my wing hypothesis. I explained that my interpretation of the wing metaphor does not explain the motion of cherubim (and of electrons) since a cherub has only two pairs of wings. Alright, I have a confession to make. It is true that I have had reasons to ask myself in the past, "what if my wing hypothesis is complete crap? What then?" However, I have since resolved those questions and, at this time, I no longer have any reason to abandon it. I just wanted to give my readers a feel for the kind of thought processes that have gone through and continue to go through my mind as I meditate about the physical meaning of the various metaphors. In today's post, I will continue to reveal more of my reasoning. My goal is to guide my readers through my thought processes in order to show how and why I arrived at the conclusions that I did. Please read the previous installments if you have not already done so.

Wings and Feet

There is no question that the wings of seraphim and cherubim are associated with motion in the three absolute spatial dimensions. After all, since the universe is both discrete and absolute, motion can only take place on a fixed 4-D discrete grid, in a manner of speaking. As I have written elsewhere, the motion of matter in the fourth dimension is handled by a specific particle property, which is symbolized by the feet in Ezekiel's and Isaiah's text. Therefore, only the wings are left to handle ordinary motion in 3-D space. I reasoned that, since every dimension has two opposite directions, if follows that it takes two wings to move in any given dimension, a positive and a negative wing. It follows that any particle must have a total of six wings in order to move in 3-D space in any arbitrary direction.

Mysterious Wings

A cherub can only move in an absolute plane, just like a seraph. However, unlike a seraph, a cherub only has two pairs of wings. This "forever" confines its movements to a single absolute plane. Here's what Ezekiel wrote about the wings of the cherubim according to one translation:
Ezekiel 1:11. Their wings were spread out upward; each had two wings, one touching the wing of another creature on either side, and two wings covering its body.
This is a rather strange verse and if you take a look at the interlinear translation of the Hebrew text (pdf), it gets even stranger. However, once you analyse it in the light of the wing hypothesis, it's not so hard to understand. First, if two wings of a creature are covering its body (the wing down position), we can conclude that they cannot contribute to its motion in that position. So, that leaves only two wings for motion, the two that are stretched upward. This makes sense because, according to the wing hypothesis, motion in any given dimension in the lattice requires two wings, one for each direction. But obviously, since a particle cannot go in both directions at a time, only one wing (positive or negative) can be deployed at a time for that dimension, depending on the direction of motion.

With only two wings for motion, a cherub can only move in a 2-D plane. A strange limitation but it gets stranger still. Notice that the two wings that are deployed and used for motion also touch the wings of another creature. What does this tell us? It tells us two things. First, keeping in mind that all four cherubim move in unison, we can conclude that all four have identical pairs of wings that are deployed identically. Second, it follows that the translation of verse 11 above cannot be correct. After studying the interlinear translation (please do so yourself), I arrived at the following much more plausible translation:
Ezekiel 1:11. Two wings of every creature were spread out upward and touched the wings of every other creature. The other two wings covered its body.
Note that the only way for two wings to touch each other is for them to share the same dimension. The touching metaphor is almost certainly a way of saying that the wings are identical. The picture that comes to my mind is that every creature (cherub) within a group of four uses a pair of identical wings when moving, while lowering the other pair of identical wings. The effect is not unlike that of a perfectly synchronized ballet. I think we should be careful about how we translate the Hebrew word for 'each'. Apparently, there is only one Hebrew word for both 'each' and 'every'. It's kind of like the French word 'chaque', which means either 'each' or 'every', depending on the context. This can create much confusion in trying to understand Ezekiel's vision but the cool thing is that other passages in the same chapter contribute to an overall contextual understanding.

Upcoming

As I explained previously, since we observe electrons to move in any arbitrary spatial direction, there has to be a way to explain their motion in spite of their 2-D wing limitation. In my next post I will reveal why I think that my wing hypothesis is still viable even though it does not explain--all by itself, that is--the motion of electrons. We need something else, something that I call la mano de Dios. I will also take the opportunity to explain why there must be three types of electrons and what this has to do with their motion. Stay tuned.

Sunday, October 3, 2010

The Cherubim Model of Elementary Particles, Part III

Part I, II, III, IV, V, VI

Abstract

To recap, the Cherubim model posits that an electron is a composite particle. Each of its four elementary constituents (cherubim) carries 1/4 of the electron's charge and mass. In addition, the model calls for the mass energy of a cherub to be associated with one of the three absolute spatial dimensions. I had planned to explain in this post why the electron is composed of four sub-particles and not 2, 3, 5 or more. I decided instead to leave that for an upcoming post. In this post, I would like to talk about a problem that has been bothering me for some time: there is something about my current wing hypothesis that does not fly. But first, allow me to bring your attention to an obscure but relevant branch of physics known as the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect.

The Quarter Electron

I remember reading years ago about a peculiar phenomenon in experimental physics called the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect. It seems that, when electrons are confined to a two-dimensional plane, fractional charges are detected. A few days ago, in light of the developing Cherubim particle model which calls for the existence of particles with 1/4 of the electron's charge, I decided to do a search on the web to find out what's been happening in the field. To my surprise, I came across several published papers that mention the finding of 1/4 electric charges. The following excerpt from an April 2008 Nature article (paid subscription is required to access the full article), in particular, caught my attention:
Debut of the quarter electron

Eduardo Fradkin

A particle-like object with a quarter of an electron's charge is the latest find in a hotbed of quantum-physical experimentation, the fractional quantum Hall fluid. Its significance is more than esoteric.

On page 829 of this issue, Dolev et al.1 report the detection of vortices in a fluid of electrons confined to two dimensions within a semiconductor structure that carry just 1/4 of the electron's charge. These 'quasiparticles' are an exciting find: according to theoretical predictions, their collective behaviour should be described by an unusual type of particle statistics known as non-abelian statistics.
Needless to say, I find the whole thing fascinating. I mean, this seems to be a rather strong confirmation of the Cherubim Model, doesn't it? I think it is. Certainly, I disagree with the author's use of the term 'quasiparticles', although I understand why he chose to use it. According to the Standard Model (the one that is accepted by all mainstream physicists), the electron is an elementary or non-composite point particle and the electric charge is the elementary charge. So the author cannot be seen as directly contradicting the accepted model. Physicists are not a very gutsy bunch, that's for sure.

One of the things that piqued my interest is the fact that the fractional Hall effect is observed only if the electrons in question are confined to a very thin two-dimensional plane or layer. It is interesting because, according to the Cherubim Model, a cherub can only move in a 2-D plane. I'll explain what I mean by this in my next post.

The Problem with my Wing Hypothesis

The four absolute dimensions of the universe are symbolized in the ancient texts by the lion, man, bull and eagle metaphors. I have always assumed that every intrinsic particle property must be directly associated with one or more of the four dimensions. For examples, faces, bodies and feet are explicitly described in the ancient texts as having a dimensional nature. The only exception seems to be the wings. Nowhere in the texts are the wings directly associated with any of the four dimensions. In other words, there is no mention of either a bull or lion wing. Certainly, an eagle or a bull faced seraph (lattice particle) can have wings but nowhere do the texts imply that a wing is limited to motion in any particular dimension. This is very strange because the wording of the metaphors is very precise. At first, I ignored the apparent incongruity but I recently had to face it head on, so to speak. Here is the problem:
I assumed that, even though a seraph can only use one pair of wings at a time for motion, by switching from one pair to another on the fly, it could move in any 3-D direction because it has three pairs of wings in total to play with.
Isaiah 6:2
Above it stood seraphim; each one had six wings: with two he covered his face, with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew.
I guessed that this meant that there were three positive and three negative wings or one pair for each dimension or direction. This seemed fine as far as seraphim were concerned but what about cherubim? These creatures are described in the book of Ezekiel as having only two pairs of wings! Since we observe that electrons (which consist of cherubim) can move in any spatial direction, this would imply that cherubim must have six wings as well. Ezekiel disagreed. At this point, I can only conclude that my old wing hypothesis no longer has a leg to stand on. This is distressing.

Upcoming

There is no question that my current wing hypothesis must be revised or replaced entirely. This is the subject of my next post in this series.