Part I, II, III
In Part I, I explained the nature of physical cause and I described the main differences between Newtonian and Einsteinian gravity. In this post, I argue that gravity is a non-local phenomenon, meaning that it involves action at a distance. I also argue that gravity is nature’s way of correcting a violation of the principle of energy conservation. If you have not already done so, please read Physics: The Problem With Motion and Understanding the Lattice before continuing.
Action at a Distance
Albert Einstein notwithstanding, there is nothing magical or spooky about action at a distance. The spookiness is only apparent. It disappears as soon as one accepts that distance is an illusion of perception. The truth of this is no less valid than your reading this article. The abstract nature of space (i.e., distance or volume) is something that can be easily demonstrated with simple logic and I have done so elsewhere. The logic of nonspatiality is as solid as can be. Briefly, the reasoning is that the existence of space leads to an infinite regress. Consequently, given that distance is an illusion, so-called nonlocality is not the exception but the rule. Thus nature has no problem correcting violations to its conservation principles regardless of the apparent distance between causes and their effects. There is no violation of the speed of light limit because no motion is involved.
I realize that many will have difficulty with the concept of nonspatiality. One of the questions that immediately arises is, if there is no distance, what is motion? The answer is based on the premise that position is not the property of some extrinsic space but one of the intrinsic properties of every particle. Hence motion can be defined merely as a change in the positional property of a particle. This is not entirely unlike virtual software objects in a 3-D video game. The position of every object in a game scene is just one of the properties of the object. This property is all that is necessary to locate the object. Sure, we perceive objects as being located in different places in our field of view but it’s only because this is how positional information is organized in our brain’s neural network.
One cool outcome of nonspatiality is that it should be possible for an object to move from anywhere to anywhere instantly. There is no reason that the position of a particle cannot be changed by an arbitrary amount, without going through the intervening positions. Nothing is impossible as long as nature’s conservation laws are obeyed. In the future, once we figure out the full physics of position control, we will develop technologies that will allow us to travel great distances instantly. The deep consequences of such empowering technologies are too vast to fully contemplate at this time.
Stealing Energy from the Lattice
As I explained in my series on motion, a particle moves by undergoing a series of interactions. It follows that normal matter is immersed in an immense 4-dimensional lattice of energetic particles. What is important to grasp, within the context of understanding gravity, is that the entire visible universe is moving at the speed of light along one of the four dimensions of the lattice. According to my causal motion hypothesis, it takes an uninterrupted (no wait periods) sequence of interactions with equally energetic lattice particles in order to sustain the motion of a particle at the speed of light. In orders words, at every instant, it takes the energy equivalent of the entire universe to move the universe a single discrete distance along the fourth dimension. That’s a lot of energy but it’s nothing compared to the energy contained in the lattice.
A problem arises if there are many particles in a relatively small area. This increases the probability of interactions. Whenever two or more particles interact, they temporarily have equal positions. The problem is that there is enough energy at that position to move only one particle at a time in the fourth dimension. It’s a problem because every particle must move at c in the fourth dimension no matter what. Why? Because that is the nature of the special property that keeps all particles moving at c in the fourth dimension.
Nature solves this problem by temporarily borrowing energy from the lattice. As a result, an imbalance is created. An imbalance is, of course, a violation of energy conservation and nature tries to correct it at the earliest opportunity. It does so by moving more matter (or energy) toward the source of the imbalance. This is manifested as gravity.
In Part III, I will explain why gravity obeys an inverse square law and how the force of gravity can be calculated from first principles. Hang in there.