Part I, Part II, Part III, Part IV, Part V
Previously, I argued that the physicist’s understanding of motion is fundamentally flawed because it denies causality. What's even worse is that physicists are still talking in this day and age about continuity as if it were a possibility. It's annoying, to say the least. In Part III, I wrote that an analysis of the causality of motion leads to the inevitable conclusion that we are moving in an immense sea of energetic particles. In this post, I explain why a discrete universe means that there is only one speed in nature, the speed of light. I give a new explanation of what Newtonian force really does to a particle and I explain why the sea is organized like a 4-D lattice. Finally, to keep things in perspective, I say a few things about the size of and the energy contained in the lattice.
Only One Speed: Jump Speed
Previously, I defined inertial motion as a macroscopic phenomenon that consists of a series of minute discrete jumps at equal intervals. I claimed that, at the microscopic level, all motion is acceleration. So where does this leave Newtonian acceleration? I think that it can be defined simply as a series of jumps occurring at progressively shorter intervals. Consequently, a discrete universe must have a macroscopic speed limit. It is the speed reached by a moving particle when the interval (temporal difference) between discrete jumps is decreased to exactly one fundamental discrete unit. In other words, it occurs when there are no more wait periods between the jumps.
It follows that jump speed is the only possible speed. Why? Think about it. This is not rocket science for propeller heads. It is simple logic. What we call smooth macroscopic motion actually consists of a series of jumps interspersed with wait periods. At half the speed of light, there are an equal number of jumps and waits. At one-third the speed of light, there is one jump for every two waits, etc. At ordinary speeds, motion consists almost entirely of wait periods with a few jumps sprinkled in. Moral of the story: at the micro level, there is only one speed in nature, the speed of a jump. In terms of what we observe at the macro level, it is the fastest possible speed, and that is the speed of light.
Forces and Wings
Assuming the motion hypothesis that I defend in this article is correct, we can deduce that there are two types of forces involved in causing a particle to move. The first force accelerates the particle while the second keeps it moving at the last speed reached when the first force is removed. The first force is identical to the Newtonian force while the second force is the force impressed on the particle by the lattice.
What exactly does the Newtonian force do to a particle? We know that it causes the particle to accelerate (jump at a faster pace) but how? Obviously, it modifies some property that is intrinsic to the particle because, if the force is removed, the particle does not revert back to its original state. Obviously, whatever intrinsic property was modified by the force changes the way the moving particle interacts with the lattice particles. My hypothesis is that there are three properties common to all particles that are responsible for their direction of motion and their average or macroscopic speed. I call these properties wings. Most of you will immediately guess that they are associated with the three dimensions that we observe and you are right. I’ll get back to wings in my next post.
Why is the sea of particles arranged as a 4-D lattice? Why not just 3-D? Part of my thesis is that there are only four dimensions, no more and no less, but this is something that I am not prepared to write about at this time. I just want to approach the subject from a less philosophical angle. The lattice must be at least 3-D since we can observe three dimensions. Why is there a need for a fourth dimension? The reason is simple: if the lattice was 3-D, it would quickly run out of energy because the lattice particles interact with normal matter and are jettisoned from their positions of origin and sent flying in all directions. Empty areas would be created everywhere and this would drastically diminish movement. This is not observed. Therefore, in order to keep the observable 3-D universe moving and doing its thing, it must be refreshed with a new lattice at every instant!
All right. I know what you’re thinking. You’re thinking that this is getting to look like the very magic that I have been railing against in this article. Hold on to your horses because this is not what I am proposing. I am proposing that the lattice has four dimensions and that the entire visible matter of the 3-D universe is moving at the speed of light along the fourth dimension. At every new discrete position in the fourth dimension, it encounters a new 3-D slice of the lattice filled to the brim with wall-to-wall particles. There are tantalizing consequences to this hypothesis. More on this in my next post.
Hell or Paradise
How big is the lattice, you ask? I have no idea. All I know is that it’s not infinite but it’s huge, many orders of magnitude bigger than the 3-D slice of the universe that we can observe. How much energy is stored in the lattice? Let me just say that it can provide enough energy to keep every particle of matter in the visible universe moving at the speed of light. To bring it into human perspective, let’s just consider the motion of the moon around the earth. There is a tremendous amount of invisible energy being expanded just to maintain the moon in orbit. Much more than humanity will ever need; even to sustain a life of wicked luxury on earth for everybody and their pets, with legions of robotic servants zipping around the planet and the solar system attending to our every need and whim. If we knew how to tap into just a tiny weenie bit of this energy field, we would be sitting pretty indeed. Earth could turn into a paradise, at least for those of us who enjoy kicking back with friends by the pool with lots of good wine, assorted hors d’euvres and delicacies. But then again, it could all turn into hell. As a species, we’re going to come face to face with very important decisions to make in a hurry, species-survival type of decisions! Yikes!
In Part V, I will explain why there are four types of lattice particles and why they always move at the speed of light once dislodged from their original position. I will argue that they are responsible for all electrostatic and magnetic phenomena, including light.